Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The population of the country is increasing day by day and pressure on agricultural products is increasing continuously. On the other hand, cultivable land is decreasing due to construction of road, residential houses, industrial buildings and other purposes. So we have to make a progressive plan for increasing crop production through irrigation practices.
In “National Agriculture Policy” some steps are mentioned to strengthen minor irrigation management as follows:
w Efforts will be made to reduce irrigation cost by improving irrigation efficiency, promoting appropriate technology, increasing irrigation command area and upgrading irrigation management.
w Irrigation from surface water will get priority and suitable programmes will be taken up for, the expansion and consolidation of appropriate technology. Emphasis will be given on the conjunctive use of ground and surface water in accordance with .the National Water Policy and Water Resources Development Plan of the government.
w Infrastructures will be built for capturing surface water from khals, beels and small rivers and increasing availability of irrigation water by using high capacity power pumps. Besides, small rivers khals, dighi, derelict ponds, etc. which has been silted up, will be re-excavated so as to augment water flow for expanding irrigation facilities. Such water bodies will be used for fish production, while tree plantation will be done on the two sides of khals.
w Since the cost of irrigation by electrically operated equipments is lower with higher efficiency, priority will be given to electricity connections and supplies for irrigation pumps.
w Location specific special progammes will be taken for the improvement of irrigation system. Irrigation programmes will be undertaken following proper strategy according to the availability of surface and groundwater. In this regard, participatory programmes for the local beneficiaries will be undertaken.
w Necessary training and technical assistance will be given to the farmers for reducing water loss through increased efficiency of the irrigation system and increasing command areas per pump.
In PRSP much more importance has been given upon use of surface water for irrigation and its consumptive use. Moreover, in the Medium Term Budgetary Framework (MTBF), 2007-2008 it has been stated that irrigation coverage of the country will be raised from 4.77 million hectare to 5.00 million hectare by 2009-2010 through increasing irrigation efficiency and Command Area Development in minor irrigation sector.
In Bangladesh the sources of surface water from perennial rivers and natural water bodies for irrigation are decreasing day by day. As a result the scope of surface water irrigation through land based pump is also declining. Water level of the perennial rivers and natural water bodies goes down in respect of the level of the crop field in the dry season. For the reason it is not easy to supply irrigation water directly to the field by the land based pumps. To overcome the situation primarily water is supplied to khal and natural water bodies from the perennial rivers by larger pumping sets (25 cusec, 12.5 cusec & 5 cusec) as primary lifting. Later on, smaller pumps (2 cusec, I cusec & fractional pumps) are used to supply water to the field as secondary lifting. The technique for supplying of surface water from the river to the crop field by consecutive two phases is being termed as Double Lifting. With a view to produce 2.5 crore tons of food grain by bringing 42 lac hectors of land under irrigation within the year 2002 the “Project for expansion of irrigation through utilization of surface water by double lifting (1st Phase)’ from .JuIy-l999 to June-2007 has been implemented by utilization of floating pumps and land based pumps
1st Phase of the project has been completed on 30/06/07 and project evaluation report after completion of the project has already been prepared by IMED and sent to Ministry of Agriculture vide memo no. Krishi/BADC/part-l/07/228 dated: 19/11/07. IMED has recommended to take necessary action for continuity of the 1st phase of the project. As per recommendation to implement 2nd phase of the project of IMED the DPP had been prepared.
As per proposal of the MOA, 2nd phase of the project was included in the green page no.617 under the serial no.47 of ADP book 2008-09 without allocation. As per decision of PEC meeting held on 30/03-20O9 DPP was recast at gross cost of TK 9698.90 lakh, Net cost 9200.00 lakh and own receipt 498.90 lakh and finally the project was approved by ECNEC on 29/10/2009.
Necessity for implementation of the 2nd phase of the project is described below
i. Emphasis has been given on the use of surface water in Poverty Reduction Strategic Papers (PRSP). This is only the project for utilization & development of surface water in Minor Irrigation Sector assisted by the government.
ii. Over extracting of ground water is creating serious problems like declining of ground water level and arsenic pollution. To minimize the pressure on ground water, optimum use of surface water is necessary.
The required development of physical irrigation infrastructure, capacity building, ancillary machinery & equipment has been incorporated in DPP of 2nd Phase to maintain continuity of the activities of the 1st Phase as per recommendations of JMED.
Irrigation in Bangladesh is mostly depend on ground water. Due to declination of ground water table and the sources of surface water from perennial rivers and natural water bodies for irrigation are decreasing day by day. As a result the scope of surface water irrigation through land based pump is also declining. Water level of the perennial rivers and natural water bodies goes down in respect of the level of the crop field in the dry season. For these reason it is not easy to supply irrigation water directly to the field by the land based pumps. To overcome the situation primarily water is supplied to Canal and natural water bodies from the perennial rivers by larger pumping sets (i.e.25 cusec, 12.5 cusee, 10 cusec & 5 cusec) as primary lifting. Later on, smaller pumps (2 cusec, 1 cusec & fractional pumps) are used to supply water to the field as secondary lifting. The technique for supplying of surface water from the river to the crop field by consecutive two phases is being termed as 2 stage lifting. Applying 2 stage lifting technique “Project for expansion of irrigation through utilization of surface water by 2 stage lifting (1St Phase & 2nd phase)” from July- 1999 to June-20 14 has been implemented by utilization of floating pumps and land based pumps. In the 2nd phase additional 29200 hectares of land was brought under irrigation producing 116800 metric tons of food grain per year.
i) To produce more food grain through optimum utilization of surface water of the perennial rivers of the country such as the Padma, the Meghna, the Jamuna along with other rivers by utilization of 5-cusec pumps and floating pumps through double lifting and development of irrigation infrastructure by applying modern irrigation technology.
ii) To increase irrigation efficiency and reduce yield gap and production cost by applying “On Farm Water Management Technology” through irrigation infrastructure development.
iii) To create self-employment opportunity and alleviate poverty for the owners/ managers/ operators fieldsman of irrigation equipment and farmers by upgrading their attitude through effective training.
iv) To create awareness among farmers about importance and application of on-farm water management practices through motivational activities regarding land use planning, types of crop growing and application of water.
Achievment of Objective of the Project
Objectives as per PP
a) To operate 445 nos. of 5-cusec land based pump and 115 nos. of floating pumps using surface water of the perennial rivers/natural water bodies by applying Double Lifting techniques for providing irrigation facilities to 64220 hectares of land for producing additional 160550.50 metric tons of food grain per year.
b) To increase irrigation efficiency and to reduce yield gap by applying “On Farm Water Management Technology” By constructing 260 nos. of discharge boxes, 174500 meters of pucca surface irrigation channel, 160nos of turn out, 52 nos of flume, 20 nos of cross dam/Submerged weir/Regulator & 245 nos. of pipe culvert.
c) To create self-employment opportunity and alleviate poverty of the project area and to develop skilled manpower for 3620 nos. of managers/operators/fieldsman of irrigation equipment and farmers by upgrading their attitude through effective training
a) Operation of 347 nos. of 5- cosec land based pump and 71 nos. of floating pumps using surface water of the perennial rivers/natural water bodies by applying Double Lifting techniques and providing irrigation facilities to 29200 hectares of land and production of additional 116800 metric tons of food grain per year was done successfully
b) Irrigation efficiency was increased and yield gap was reduced by applying “On Farm Water Management Technology” By constructing 309 nos of discharge boxes, 178974 meters of pucca surface irrigation channel, 175 nos of turn out, 51 nos of flume, 17 nos of cross-dam/Submerged weir/ Regulator & 263 nos. of pipe culvert.
C) self-employment opportunity was created and poverty was alleviated, in the project area significantly through developing skilled manpower of 3620nos. of managers/operators/ fieldsman of irrigation equipment and farmers through upgrading their attitude through effective training.
Reasons for short fail any
a) 98 sets of 5-cusec & 46 sets of floating pumps was not possible to fielded because of i) Late purchase
ii) Late repare and maintenance
iii) Late Electrification
iv) Shortage of water during dryseason
Analysis of the post-Implementa-tion situation and result of the project
Whether the beneficiaries of the project have clear knowledge about the Target/Objectives of the Project.
The beneficiaries of the project are the land owners, farmers, marginal farmers, laborers and all the inhabitants of the project area. They are informed about the targets & objectives of the project through BADC personnel. So they have clear knowledge about the target! Objectives of the project.
Program for use of created-facilities of the project
The major created facilities of this project are the fielding of floating & land based pumps and construction of irrigation infrastructure. The farmers are using these created facilities and it will be continued with the help of the personnel of the corporation. In the mean time a new project is proposed to continue the use of these created facilities.
Impact of the project Direct
Procurement/collection and operation of 25 nos of 25-cusec floating pumping set, 71 nos of I 2.5-cusec floating pumping set, 10 nos of l0-cusec floating pumping set and 445 nos of land based pumping set was the target during the project period. Due to some constraints described earlier the highest no of fielding of 25-cusec floating pump was 17.5 unit in the year 2013-14, that of 12.5-cusec floating pump was 55 nos in the year 2013-14 and that of l0-cusec floating pump was 6 nos in the year 20 13-14 land based pump was 347 nos in the year 2013-14. Covering total l27275hectare and thus the total yield of additional crops was 509100 metric ton (4tlha basis) pricing tk.101820.00 lakh during the project period which is as follows.