Management is the process or procedure to direct or execute any activity. The efforts or techniques that man has been practicing to achieve his desired goal the ancient period is nowadays regarded as Management as a whole. When men had started living together from the dawn of civilization, since then to lead a peaceful life, it becomes necessary for everyone to take the help of others to lead a comfortable life and to bring discipline almost in all daily affairs and to do the activities in a comfortable way. In many cases a man has to seek the help of others in order to make objectives successful. Men easily achieve the opportunities to complete his daily activities by taking such kind of helping hands of others. At one stage it becomes clear in executing a task in the attempt of achieving any general objective of an individual or a group of people as well as people of the society when it is needed to fix up the range of activities of different people, fix the way of doing anything in the right way, coordinate and control the activities among different people. As a leader or a mentor, then a man has to prepare a work plan, direction of activities and had to come forward with duties as well as they had to make the objectives fruitful by taking the help of others. Thus individual leadership becomes extended and Management has been created from this individual leadership which has developed gradually through different process of evolution and now it has become established as a unique skill.
Now a days, Management is regarded as a compulsory social process. It’s omnipresence is noticeable almost in all the spheres of the society in all cases. Management is widespread everywhere as in families, clubs, religious institutions, educational institutions, business institutions even in the government and state and where not. The concerns of Management are to plan, organize, direct and motivate, coordinate and to control. The fundamentalism of Management in achieving the stipulated goal by properly using the materials accumulated by focusing human endeavors in the right direction. Nowadays Management is indispensible in any institution whether it is commercial or non commercial, large or small and in any sort of social system.
In the primary stage Management was individual and family centric. Later its importance and range started to spread with the development of society and the rise of the states. In the modern day socio economic context, Management is closely associated with the conduct of different diversified activities ranging from individual and social to national and international phase. The effective impact of Management is strongly prevailing in the following aspects of our daily life.
Management in family life
Family is the most primitive and smallest yet the most powerful institution. In every family father or mother or elderly person has to bear the responsibilities of rearing the members, take care and feeding, education etc. as the chief or master of the family. Management brings comfort and peace on human life by directing and completing the above mentioned responsibilities properly and accordingly. The chief of the family must do some managerial works if he wants to run his family successfully.
Management in social organization
Different kinds of social institutions have emerged with a view to fulfilling the different needs of social beings and controlling their activities. Amongst these institutions schools, mosques, temples, churches, hospitals’ clubs, cooperatives, and organizations related with local administrative activities such as Union Parisad, Upazilla and Zilla parisad, Municipalities are wort mentioning. The active presence of management is found to direct in these social organizations. Skilled management paves the way to ensure the social welfare through well direction social institution.
Management in political organization
At the beginning of human civilization there was nothing like political institutions. But at present it has taken a shape of strong political institution. Management is offhand in the activities of different political parties, materialization of the objectives of the parties, establishment of discipline in the parties. Every political institution has to accomplish the necessary managerial activities in order to execute the activities of the parties properly.
Management in business organization
Management is an integral element in small, big and medium business. Different activities of business like production, buying & selling, storing, transportation, financing, advertisements, insurance etc. are executed within the area of management.The importance of management in the business organizations has been given below:
a) Achievement of goal : Earning profit is the primary concern of a business organization. Proper management is required to achieve this goal of a business institution. Managerial activities like forecasting, planning, organizing, staffing , directing and leading, motivating, controlling etc. play the most important role to achieve the goal of business organizations. The bigger the business organization is, the more important the management for it becomes. In fact the goal of a business can be achieved only by the resolute and skilled leadership of a manager.
b) Proper utilization of factors of production: The development of the industries as well as the country depends on the effective and usage of different elements of production such as land, labor, capital etc. A business organization can never be formed with group undisciplined laborers, a stack of unorganized raw materials and tolls. Skilled management is required for this. It is management that ensures production by co-ordinating the elements of production.
c) Proper utilization of wealth : The proper utilization of various natural and unnatural resources is very important. The permanent, proper and effective utilization of resources plays a vital role in the development of business. But due to lack constructive planning, various resources remain unnoticed. Management ensures the proper utilization of resources by taking appreciate plans about natural resources and executing them.
d) Prevention of wastage : The motto of success in business-“Maximum production at minimum cost”. The application of the principles and procedures of management ensures maximum production at low cost and minimum labor by reducing all kinds of wastage and depreciation cost. Only skilled management can direct an institution towards success by preventing all kinds of misuse and wastage of an institution.
e) Solving problem :Management acts as a friend, a philosopher, a path finder in solving different kinds of intricate problems of an institution. In this regard management restores order by utilizing special knowledge and experience and plays a role to execute activities successful.
Besides management plays the pivotal role in the development of human resources of business organization, establishment of healthy relationship, confrontation of environment, execution of research work etc. to achieve success of the organization.
Management in the field of state State is the most institution to establish the rule of law and to control the social order. The entire peace, discipline and control become effective through state run institutions. Government and institutions which execute activities to implement state ruling system, management is necessary for them in every case. In this respect Prime Minister, the President, Ministers of different portfolios, different secretaries as well as highly administrative personalities play an important role of directing the country and the govt. by being involved in the management of the state.
Management in international life
Management is not only related with the executing activities of various internal organizations of the country but also different international institutional atmosphere such as UNDP, UNICEF, UCEP, WTO, WHO, IMF, IDB etc. have to depend on management.
To explain the indispensability of Management the American President Roosevelt said ” No ideology, no ism, no political theory can win a greater output with less effort from a given complex of human and material resources without sound management.”
At the eleventh hour it can be said in cord with the Management specialist Terry and Franklin “We are all managers of our own lives and practice of management is found on every fact of human activity.” In fact We are all affected by management practices and we should therefore learn to recognize and influence the quality of management that affects on lives.